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Coverage refers to the number of reads that align with each particular base, i.e. one read equals 1x coverage and 50x coverage equals 50 reads per base. Higher coverage increases the likelihood that the complete sequence of a DNA sample will be accurately determined. 1000 Genomes Project data was generated at 4-5x coverage. Full Genomes sequencing is at an average of 50x coverage.

Illumina Sequencing Introduction
How do you sequence a genome?

Read length

150 base pairs

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Read length:

Read length refers to the size, in bases, of the short sequences that are then assembled into the full genome to form a continuous sequence.


Determines your Y haplogroup assignment

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A haplogroup is a group of descendant individuals from a single founder who all share a common SNP mutation. Individuals can test for these SNPs to determine their haplogroup assignment, which is often reflective of distant geographic ancestry. Membership in a particular haplogroup thus indicates broad population and geographic ancestry while other mutations in descendant haplotypes can reflect recent genealogical ancestry.


Reports ALL your Y chromosome SNPs

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A SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) is a variation in DNA sequence between individuals involving a difference at a single base-pair. SNPs generally have lower mutation rates than STRs and are often sufficiently stable to robustly define haplogroups.

Private SNPs

Reports your private SNPs

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"Private" SNPs:

"Private" SNPs on the Y chromosome correspond to relatively recent mutations that have not yet been observed in a significant number of other individuals in the same haplogroup. Some of these will eventually be incorporated into the Y-tree with further research. Others may provide clues about recent genealogical ancestry.


Reports over 300 Y chromosome STRs

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STR (short tandem repeats) are a type of molecular marker consisting of short DNA letter repeats (such as CACA). These markers have a high rate of mutation and are accordingly useful in determining population genetic differences. In the Y chromosome line, SNPs and STRs in conjunction serve to show differences between individuals and groups in their DNA lineages. In short, STRs are one part of the puzzle in everyone's Y chromosome DNA heritage.

Full Genomes

Full Genomes is dedicated to bringing you the best sequencing experience possible, by combining next generation sequencing technology with an easy to use, feature-rich web experience—to allow you to explore yourself—your history, your ancestry, your genealogy.